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This was beyond the state of the art at the time. Instead, a number of hybrid solutions were developed that combined a conventional monochrome display with a colored disk or mirror. In these systems the three colored images were sent one after each other, in either complete frames in the " field-sequential color system ", or for each line in the "line-sequential" system.
In both cases a colored filter was rotated in front of the display in sync with the broadcast. Since three separate images were being sent in sequence, if they used existing monochrome radio signaling standards they would have an effective refresh rate of only 20 fields, or 10 frames, a second, well into the region where flicker would become visible.
In order to avoid this, these systems increased the frame rate considerably, making the signal incompatible with existing monochrome standards. The first practical example of this sort of system was again pioneered by John Logie Baird. In he publicly demonstrated a color television combining a traditional black-and-white display with a rotating colored disk.
This device was very "deep", but was later improved with a mirror folding the light path into an entirely practical device resembling a large conventional console. The CBS field-sequential color system was partly mechanical, with a disc made of red, blue, and green filters spinning inside the television camera at 1, rpm, and a similar disc spinning in synchronization in front of the cathode ray tube inside the receiver set.
CBS began daily color field tests on June 1, The War Production Board halted the manufacture of television and radio equipment for civilian use from April 22, to August 20, , limiting any opportunity to introduce color television to the general public. The two-color image would be similar to the basic telechrome system. As early as , Baird had started work on a fully electronic system he called the " Telechrome ".
Early Telechrome devices used two electron guns aimed at either side of a phosphor plate. The phosphor was patterned so the electrons from the guns only fell on one side of the patterning or the other. Using cyan and magenta phosphors, a reasonable limited-color image could be obtained. He also demonstrated the same system using monochrome signals to produce a 3D image called "stereoscopic" at the time. Baird's demonstration on August 16, was the first example of a practical color television system.
However, Baird's untimely death in ended development of the Telechrome system. The Geer tube was similar to Baird's concept, but used small pyramids with the phosphors deposited on their outside faces, instead of Baird's 3D patterning on a flat surface. The Penetron used three layers of phosphor on top of each other and increased the power of the beam to reach the upper layers when drawing those colors.
The Chromatron used a set of focusing wires to select the colored phosphors arranged in vertical stripes on the tube. Worrying about congestion of the limited number of channels available, the FCC put a moratorium on all new licenses in while considering the problem.
A solution was immediately forthcoming; rapid development of radio receiver electronics during the war had opened a wide band of higher frequencies to practical use, and the FCC set aside a large section of these new UHF bands for television broadcast. At the time, black and white television broadcasting was still in its infancy in the U. Since no existing television would be able to tune in these stations, they were free to pick an incompatible system and allow the older VHF channels to die off over time.
Of the entrants, the CBS system was by far the best-developed, and won head-to-head testing every time. While the meetings were taking place it was widely known within the industry that RCA was working on a dot-sequential system that was compatible with existing black-and-white broadcasts, but RCA declined to demonstrate it during the first series of meetings.
By this point the market had changed dramatically; when color was first being considered in there were fewer than a million television sets in the U.
The idea that the VHF band could be allowed to "die" was no longer practical. During its campaign for FCC approval, CBS gave the first demonstrations of color television to the general public, showing an hour of color programs daily Mondays through Saturdays, beginning January 12, , and running for the remainder of the month, over WOIC in Washington, D.
An unsuccessful lawsuit by RCA delayed the first commercial network broadcast in color until June 25, , when a musical variety special titled simply Premiere was shown over a network of five East Coast CBS affiliates. While the CBS color broadcasting schedule gradually expanded to twelve hours per week but never into prime time ,  and the color network expanded to eleven affiliates as far west as Chicago,  its commercial success was doomed by the lack of color receivers necessary to watch the programs, the refusal of television manufacturers to create adapter mechanisms for their existing black-and-white sets,  and the unwillingness of advertisers to sponsor broadcasts seen by almost no one.
CBS had bought a television manufacturer in April,  and in September , production began on the only CBS-Columbia color television model, with the first color sets reaching retail stores on September Only sets had been shipped, and only sold, when CBS discontinued its color television system on October 20, , ostensibly by request of the National Production Authority for the duration of the Korean War , and bought back all the CBS color sets it could to prevent lawsuits by disappointed customers.
Unlike the hybrid systems, dot-sequential televisions used a signal very similar to existing black-and-white broadcasts, with the intensity of every dot on the screen being sent in succession. In Georges Valensi demonstrated an encoding scheme that would allow color broadcasts to be encoded so they could be picked up on existing black-and-white sets as well. In his system the output of the three camera tubes were re-combined to produce a single " luminance " value that was very similar to a monochrome signal and could be broadcast on the existing VHF frequencies.
The color information was encoded in a separate " chrominance " signal, consisting of two separate signals, the original blue signal minus the luminance B'—Y' , and red-luma R'—Y'. These signals could then be broadcast separately on a different frequency; a monochrome set would tune in only the luminance signal on the VHF band, while color televisions would tune in both the luminance and chrominance on two different frequencies, and apply the reverse transforms to retrieve the original RGB signal.
The downside to this approach is that it required a major boost in bandwidth use, something the FCC was interested in avoiding.
RCA used Valensi's concept as the basis of all of its developments, believing it to be the only proper solution to the broadcast problem. However, RCA's early sets using mirrors and other projection systems all suffered from image and color quality problems, and were easily bested by CBS's hybrid system.
All-electronic systems included the Chromatron , Penetron and beam-index tube that were being developed by various companies. While investigating all of these, RCA's teams quickly started focusing on the shadow mask system.
In July the shadow mask color television was patented by Werner Flechsig — in Germany, and was demonstrated at the International radio exhibition Berlin in Most CRT color televisions used today are based on this technology. His solution to the problem of focusing the electron guns on the tiny colored dots was one of brute-force; a metal sheet with holes punched in it allowed the beams to reach the screen only when they were properly aligned over the dots.
Three separate guns were aimed at the holes from slightly different angles, and when their beams passed through the holes the angles caused them to separate again and hit the individual spots a short distance away on the back of the screen.
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Unlike the hybrid systems, dot-sequential televisions used a signal very similar to existing black-and-white broadcasts, with the intensity of every dot on the screen being sent in succession. We regularly evaluate this type of activity and will continue to make adjustments to our registration process to help foster a positive customer experience. Yahoo Koprol was an Indonesian geo-tagging website that allowed users to share information about locations without the use of a GPS device.