Augusto Pinochet :
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January in Casablanca. His duties in this role included inventing new technical aids to assist with opposed landings. It was to be a massive and impregnable metre aircraft carrier made from reinforced ice " Pykrete ": Habakkuk was never carried out due to its enormous cost. It was Mountbatten who recognized that surprise and speed were essential to ensure the radar was captured, and saw that an airborne assault was the only viable method.
Nazaire in mid, an operation which put out of action one of the most heavily defended docks in Nazi-occupied France until well after war's end, the ramifications of which contributed to allied supremacy in the Battle of the Atlantic. After these two successes came the Dieppe Raid of 19 August He was central in the planning and promotion of the raid on the port of Dieppe.
However, military historians such as former Royal Marine Julian Thompson have written that these lessons should not have needed a debacle such as Dieppe to be recognised.
The attempt fell predictably flat, with Stalin dryly inquiring whether "it was some time ago that he had been there". Says Lunghi, "The meeting was embarrassing because Stalin was so unimpressed. He offered no invitation. Mountbatten left with his tail between his legs. Mountbatten's instructions were to avoid partition and preserve a united India as a result of the transference of power but authorised him to adapt to a changing situation in order to get Britain out promptly with minimal reputational damage.
Although his advisers favoured a gradual transfer of independence, Mountbatten decided the only way forward was a quick and orderly transfer of independence before was out. In his view, any longer would mean civil war. He felt differently about the Muslim leader Muhammed Ali Jinnah , but was aware of his power, stating "If it could be said that any single man held the future of India in the palm of his hand in , that man was Mohammad Ali Jinnah. During his meeting with Mountbatten, Gandhi asked Mountbatten to invite Jinnah to form a new Central government, but Mountbatten never uttered a word of Gandhi's ideas to Jinnah.
At the same time, he worked as a teachers' aide at the War Academy, giving military geography and geopolitics classes. At the beginning of , with the rank of major, he was sent for two years to the "Rancagua" Regiment in Arica. While there, he was appointed professor of the Chilean War Academy, and returned to Santiago to take up his new position.
He remained with the Quito mission for four-and-a-half years, during which time he studied geopolitics , military geography and military intelligence. At the end of he returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquarters of the 1st Army Division, based in Antofagasta.
The following year, he was appointed commander of the "Esmeralda" Regiment. Due to his success in this position, he was appointed Sub-director of the War Academy in In , he was named Chief of Staff of the 2nd Army Division, based in Santiago , and at the end of that year, he was promoted to brigadier general and Commander in Chief of the 6th Division, garrisoned in Iquique.
At the beginning of , he was appointed General Chief of Staff of the Army. With rising domestic strife in Chile, after General Prats resigned his position, Pinochet was appointed commander-in-chief of the Army on 23 August by President Salvador Allende just the day after the Chamber of Deputies of Chile approved a resolution asserting that the government was not respecting the Constitution.
Less than a month later, the Chilean military deposed Allende. Military coup of [ edit ] Main article: This was followed by brutal repression during Pinochet's rule, during which about 3, people were killed, and more than 1, are still missing. United States intelligence agencies believed the plan to be untrue propaganda. United States intervention in Chile U. He stated that the coup itself was possible only through a three-year covert operation mounted by the United States.
He also points out that the US imposed an "invisible blockade" that was designed to disrupt the economy under Allende, and contributed to the destabilization of the regime. Authors Tim Weiner , in his book, Legacy of Ashes ,  and Christopher Hitchens , in his book, The Trial of Henry Kissinger  similarly argue the case that US covert actions actively destabilized Allende's government and set the stage for the coup. A document released by the U.
DINA led the multinational campaign known as Operation Condor , which amongst other activities carried out assassinations of prominent politicians in various Latin American countries, in Washington, D. The public health service was improved, with the establishment of a system of clinics in working-class neighborhoods on the peripheries of the major cities, providing a health center for every 40, inhabitants. Statistics for construction in general, and house-building in particular, reached some of the highest levels in the history of Chile.
Four million square metres were completed in —72, compared to an annual average of two-and-a-half million between and Workers were able to acquire goods which had previously been beyond their reach, such as heaters, refrigerators, and television sets. As further noted by Ricardo Israel Zipper, "By now meat was no longer a luxury, and the children of working people were adequately supplied with shoes and clothing. The popular living standards were improved in terms of the employment situation, social services, consumption levels, and income distribution.
Orange lines mark the beginning and end of Allende's presidency. Not only was a major restructuring program organized the Vuskovic plan , he had to make it a success if a socialist successor to Allende was going to be elected.
In the first year of Allende's term, the short-term economic results of Minister of the Economy Pedro Vuskovic 's expansive monetary policy were highly favorable: The average Real GDP contracted between and at an annual rate of 5. Allende also froze all prices while raising salaries.
His implementation of these policies was strongly opposed by landowners, employers, businessmen and transporters associations, and some civil servants and professional unions. The rightist opposition was led by the National Party , the Roman Catholic Church which in was displeased with the direction of educational policy ,  and eventually the Christian Democrats. There were growing tensions with foreign multinational corporations and the government of the United States.
Allende also undertook Project Cybersyn , a system of networked telex machines and computers. Cybersyn was developed by British cybernetics expert Stafford Beer. The network was supposed to transmit data from factories to the government in Santiago, allowing for economic planning in real time.
Shortly afterward, Cuban president Fidel Castro made a month-long visit to Chile. Originally the visit was supposed to be one week; however, Castro enjoyed Chile and one week led to another. In October , the first of what were to be a wave of strikes was led first by truckers, and later by small businessmen, some mostly professional unions and some student groups.
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